Shard Detail

yaga v1.0.0

A genetic multilayer algorithm supporting different layers types

Install & Use

Add the following code to your project's shard.yml under:

dependencies to use in production
- OR -
development_dependencies to use in development


yaga:
  github: fruktorum/yaga

Readme

YAGA - Yet Another Genetic Algorithm

YAGA is a genetic multilayer algorithm supporting different layers types.

  • Engine has no dependencies instead of stdlib (only specific operations use it, see the documentation about each)
  • YAGA has been made to support different classes for inputs, outputs and layers (like difference between convolutional and fully connected layers in CNNs)
  • Genetic model generates on compile-time and does not consume initialization resources on production
  • It can be used to train your models before production with Population class or to run the model with Bot class in production
  • Saving and loading the model saves and loads the state of Operations in each layer into JSON

Index

Installation

  1. Add the dependency to your shard.yml:

    dependencies:
      yaga:
        github: fruktorum/yaga
    
  2. Run shards install

Usage

  • Please see the examples folder with specific documentation about each use case provided by engine
  • Please see the chromosomes folder with descriptions about each Chromosome in presets to understand which would be more useful for specific project

Basic usage taken from Lesson 1, full algorithm is located in Horizontal-Vertical recognition folder.

1. Require the engine

require "yaga"

Chromosomes does not loads automatically - just a core engine.
You can develop your own chromosomes for your project by inheriting from YAGA::Chromosome or by using presets in chromosomes:

require "yaga/chromosomes/binary_neuron"

Please read the documentation about chromosome.
They could have external dependencies that should be added to your shard.yml (example: MatrixMultiplicator with requiring of SimpleMatrix shard).

2. Compile genome model

Genome builds on compile-time and based on StaticArrays to achieve the highest possible performance.

YAGA::Genome.compile(
  # Generated genome class           Inputs type (array)       Inputs size
  BinaryGenome                     , BitArray                , 9          ,

  # Activator                        Activations type (array)  Outputs size
  { YAGA::Chromosomes::BinaryNeuron, BitArray                , 4            },
  { YAGA::Chromosomes::BinaryNeuron, BitArray                , 2            }
)
  1. BinaryGenome is a class name of building genome. It can be any that Crystal supports.
  2. BitArray - the type of input that the model works with. Should be an array (StaticArray/Array/Set/etc that has #[], #[]= and << methods).
  3. 9 - number of elements that passes in.
  4. { Chromosome, output_type, output_amount } - genome layers:
    1. YAGA::Chromosomes::BinaryNeuron - chromosome class. Internally should have the same inputs type as outputs of previous layer. In case of the first layer after inputs - should have the inputs type.
    2. BitArray - layer's outputs type. Like an inputs, should be an array.
    3. 4 - number of outputs (note that inputs are taken from outputs of the layer before).

As you can see, like a neural networks each layer (i.e. each Chromosome) can manage its own data types. Please see examples for more complicated use cases.

3. Prepare the data

inputs = Array( BitArray ).new( 16 ){ BitArray.new 9 }
outputs = Array( BitArray ).new( 16 ){ BitArray.new 2 }

Please note that array of inputs has the same size as the model inputs; array of outputs - the same as model outputs.

Fill the inputs and outputs somehow (for example it can be the horizontal and vertical recognition example).

4. Create population based on compiled genome

random = Random.new

# Arguments are:
# 1. Total Population
# 2. Selection
# 3. Mutation Chance
# 4. Should crossover be enabled
# 5. Custom random for deterministic behaviour
population = YAGA::Population( BinaryGenome, UInt32 ).new 64, 8, 10, true, random

It is also available to initialize population with named arguments:

random = Random.new
population = YAGA::Population( BinaryGenome, UInt32 ).new total_bots: 64,
                                                          selection_bots: 8,
                                                          mutation_percent: 10,
                                                          crossover_enabled: true,
                                                          random: random

Generic parameters

  • BinaryGenome - the compiled genome class name (required)
  • UInt32 - the type of the fitness value (any Number type) (required) Please see different examples why it is here

Initialization parameters (with defaults)

  • total_bots: 64_u32 - total population amount
  • selection_bots: 8_u32 - selection amount that will be chosen as best (see Genetic Algorithm articles to understand what is selection)
  • mutation_percent: 10_u8 - mutation percent (see Genetic Algorithm articles to understand what is mutation)
  • crossover_enabled: true - set it to false if crossover action should be disabled
  • random: Random::DEFAULT - if the trainig population needs to be deterministic (see Example 3 - Snake Game)

5. Train bots

Samples in this section based on Example 1 - Horizontal-Vertical and its BitArray inputs vector.

Version 1: #train_each

# It would be better to see the progress
require "progress"

goal = 16 # Please make sure the type is matched to population fitness type
generation_cap = 30000_u64

bar = ProgressBar.new( ( generation_cap * population.total_bots ).to_i )

simulations_passed = population.train_each( goal, generation_cap ){|bot, generation|
  fitness = 0 # How good the bot is

  inputs.each_with_index{|input, index|
    activation = bot.activate input # Last genome layer calculation result
    fitness += 1 if activation == outputs[ index ] # Calculate fitness
  }

  bar.inc

  fitness
}

p simulations_passed: simulations_passed # Amount of simulations
  • Block is the main algorithm that applies to each bot in population
  • The block's argument is a YAGA::Bot( T ) with the same type as genome input (BinaryGenome in this example)
  • Output of the block call should be Float64 fitness value: more fitness value -> more suitable bot
  • Output of the training process (simulations_passed) is the total simulations that bots passed
  • goal (required) - training stops when any bot reaches the goal
  • generation_cap (optional, 10 000 by default) - total simulations amount which should be passed before stop, prevents infinity loop when bots cannot reach the goal
  • progress is not required feature but it helps a lot in training
    • Please make sure to add askn/progress into your shards.yml

Version 2: #train_world

# It would be better to see the progress
require "progress"

def run_simulation( bots : Array( BinaryGenome ), inputs : Array( BitArray ) ) : Void
  bots.each{|bot|
    fitness = 0 # How good the bot is

    inputs.each_with_index{|input, index|
      activation = bot.activate input # Last genome layer calculation result
      fitness += 1 if activation == outputs[ index ] # Calculate fitness
    }

    bot.fitness = fitness
  }
end

goal = 16 # Please make sure the type is matched to population fitness type
generation_cap = 30000_u64

bar = ProgressBar.new generation_cap.to_i

simulations_passed = population.train_world( goal, generation_cap ){|bots, generation|
  run_simulation bots, inputs
  bar.inc
}

p simulations_passed: simulations_passed # Amount of simulations

Notes

6. Take the leader

bot = population.selection.first
dna_genes = bot.genome.dna.map{ |chromosomes| chromosomes.map{ |chromosome| chromosome.genes } }

p genome: dna_genes,
  generation:  bot.generation, # Bot generation - on what simulation appeared bot's genome state
  max_fitness: bot.fitness,    # Bot's personal training fitness result (on the last simulation)
  brain_size:  bot.brain_size  # Total number of genes

7. Save/Load the state

# To save genome - just say the bot to show json
best = population.bots.max_by &.fitness
genome = best.to_json
p genome

# To restore genome - just say the bot to read json
bot = YAGA::Bot( BinaryGenome, UInt32 ).from_json genome

# To restore the same genome for all population - apply the loaded bot's genome to this
population.bots.each &.replace( bot )

There is no option to load genome into population itself. Please see Example 3 - Snake Game about that.
In short - from_json works completely correctly and stable only for YAGA::Bot class itself, it is not responsible for programmer-defined classes (like a Game::Snake class in described example).

to_json have less problems with that - until it is redefined in custom classes. And can be used on subclasses of YAGA::Bot directly.

8. Exploitation

# Get a bot result:
p bot.activate( inputs.sample )

Version 1: #simulate_each

input = inputs.sample

# Launch the population simulation per bot:
population.simulate_each{|bot|
  p bot.activate( input )
}

Version 2: #simulate_world

input = inputs.sample

# Launch the population simulation for all bots:
population.simulate_world{|bots|
  p bots.map( &.activate( input ) )
}

9. Population Callbacks

Each callback can be defined at any time and assigns to population object.

Callbacks will be launched in the same order as mentioned.

  • before_training( &block : UInt64, V, UInt64 -> Void ) : Void - assigns callback which launches before starting the training ran via train_* methods
  • before_simulation( &block : UInt64 -> Void ) : Void - assigns callback which launches before every simulation ran via #simulate_* and train_* methods
  • before_evolution( &block : UInt64 -> Void ) : Void - assigns callback which launches before every training ran via train_ methods
  • after_evolution( &block : UInt64 -> Void ) : Void - assigns callback which launches before every training ran via train_ methods
  • after_simulation( &block : UInt64 -> Void ) : Void - assigns callback which launches before every simulation ran via #simulate_* and train_* methods
  • after_training( &block : UInt64, V, UInt64 -> Void ) : Void - assigns callback which launches before every simulation ran via #simulate_* and train_* methods

All methods yield population generation on the first argument.
Only one callback of the same type can be assigned at the same time (it is not possible to define double before_simulation callbacks and etc.).

before_training and after_training arguments:

  • current population generation
  • fitness goal of training (type V - user-defined on population initialization)
  • generations amount that should be trained (or has been trained - if it is after_training callback)

Example:

bar = ProgressBar.new 0

# Define before_training callback and reset progress bar size
population.before_training{|generation, goal, training_generations|
  # Show some statistics before training
  p previons_generation: generation, goal_to_train: goal, training_generations: training_generations

  bar.total = training_generations.to_i32
  bar.set 0
}

# Show evolutions statistics (warning: it is calling per each simulation on evolution process)
population.after_evolution{|generation|
  # It is possible to see some statistics
  # p new_generation: generation, max_fitness: population.selection.max_by( &.fitness )
  # but using progress bar can be more viable
  bar.inc
}

population.train_world( goal: 1.2, generation_cap: 10000 ){|bots, generation|
  # ...training logic...
}

10. Genetic functions

If you'd like to use your own genetic functions it is possible to override the default ones or create the inherited class:

class CustomPopulation < YAGA::Population( MyDNA, Float64 )
  def crossover : Void
    # Write your crossover function here
  end

  def mutate : Void
    # Write your mutation algorithm here
  end

  def finalize_evolution : Void
    # By default, this overrides last 5 bots to prevent stagnation
    # You can leave it empty if it is not needed in your case
  end
end

Development

All PRs are welcome!

  • To add the chromosome, please add it to src/chromosomes folder
  • Please make sure that features compile with --release and (preferably) --static flags on Alpine Linux (see the Dockerfile sample for clarification)
  • Please make sure that it is working correctly when composed with other existed chromosomes when layered it in mixed way
  • Please add at least one spec and at least one example to clarify its use cases
  • Please note about secific inputs or outputs for the chromosome (such as YAGA::Chromosomes::BinaryNeuron based on BitArray) in example documentation. It would also help users to architect interfaces more strict and less error prone.
  • Please add your name to contributors list below to make a history

Contributing

  1. Fork it (https://github.com/fruktorum/yaga/fork)
  2. Create your feature branch (git checkout -b my-new-feature)
  3. Commit your changes (git commit -am 'Add some feature')
  4. Push to the branch (git push origin my-new-feature)
  5. Create a new Pull Request

Contributors

Thanks

Special thanks to the resources without which nothing like this would have been implemented.

  • Genetic Bots by foo52ru - the main idea was born thanks to this video
  • Introduction to Genetic Algorithms by Vijini Mallawaarachchi - simple and detailed explanation about how genetic works helped a lot
  • Perlin Noise Part 2 by A. Lagae - example with interpolation function research (and why derivatives are matter) was born with only this great article