Shard Detail

hardwire v1.1.0

A compile-time, non-intrusive dependency injection system.
crystal dependency-injection macros hacktoberfest

Install & Use

Add the following code to your project's shard.yml under:

dependencies to use in production
- OR -
development_dependencies to use in development


hardwire:
  github: rwnx/hardwire

Readme

HardWire ⚡

Crystal CI

A Compile-time Dependency Injection system for Crystal.

Installation

  1. Add the dependency to your shard.yml:
dependencies:
  hardwire:
    github: rwnx/hardwire
  1. Run shards install

Usage

require "hardwire"

Hardwire is designed to operate inside a container object. Since the resolution is compile-time (Using Macros), normally this will be a module.

Creating a container 📦

# To create a new container, include `HardWire::Container`
# This will add the macros you need to register and resolve wiring
module Container
  include HardWire::Container

  # use transient/singleton to wire different lifecycles
  # singleton dependencies will be memoized
  # dependencies for the constructor will be resolved from the constructor automatically
  transient Dependency
  singleton NeedsDependency
  scoped Webservice

  # you can also register dependencies with a block instead of inspecting the constructor
  # Your block MUST return an instance of the class you are registering
  singleton NeedsDependency {
    NeedsDependency.new( self.resolve Dependency )
  }
end

Hardwire tries to operate with minimal modifications to other classes (unless required). "simple" classes, e.g.

  • Have a single constructor
  • Have unique dependencies/do not require tags

If your classes match this signature, you can wire up in the container without adding anything to the classes.

For everything else, there's:

Multiple Constructors 🚧

Hardwire needs to know which constuctor function to use.

Annotate your "Injectable" constructor with the Hardwire::Inject annotation.

class MultipleInits
  @[HardWire::Inject]
  def initialize(input: String)
    # register will inspect this method's arguments
    # [...]
  end

  def initialize
    # will not be used for injection
    # [...]
  end
end

Tags 🏷

To differentiate between registrations of the same type, use the HardWire::Tags annotation. Tags allow you to attach additional metadata to the signature. Tags themselves are string-based, simple identifiers (/\w+/) that allow you to resolve a different registration of the same class.

# [...]

# registering a transient dependency with tag "secret"
transient String, "secret" {
  "a secret string"
}

# registering a singleton
# When no tags are set, it is considered the "default" registration
singleton DbService

# registering a different singleton with a tag
singleton DbService, "primary"

# Resolving Dependencies
class Resolving
  @[Hardwire::Tags(input: "secret", primary_db: "primary")]
  def initialize(input : String, primary_db : DbService, default_db : DbService)
  end
end

Lifecycles ♽

There are 3 lifecycles available for registrations:

  • Singleton: The dependency is instantiated once for the lifetime of the application
  • Scoped: the dependency instantiated once for each created scope and destroyed when the scope is garbage-collected
  • Transient: the dependency is instatiated each time it is resolved

Scopes 🔭

To managed scoped instances, you should create a scope object with the .scope macro.

# This example will init a database DatabaseConnection for each http request
# but all the databases will recieve the same instance of config (singleton)
# the ScopedLogging dependency will also be instantiated once for each scope resolution
require "kemal"
class Config; end
class ScopedLogging; end
class DatabaseConnection
  def initialize(@config : Config, @logging : ScopedLogging)
  end
end

module Container
  include HardWire::Container

  singleton Config
  scoped ScopedLogging
  scoped DatabaseConnection
end


get "/" do
  # create a unique scope
  scope = Container.scope

  logger = scope.resolve ScopedLogging
  db = scope.resolve DatabaseConnection
  db.get_some_data

  logger.log("I share a logger with the database in scope!")
end

Kemal.run

Resolving Manually 🔨

You can resolve dependencies manually using the .resolve macro. This allows you to resolve dependencies manually with the tag string.

module Container
  include HardWire::Container

  transient SecretService, "primary"
  singleton DatabaseThing
end

service = Container.resolve SecretService, "primary"
db = Container.resolve DatabaseThing

Runtime Interrogation 👀

Hardwire can tell you information about the registrations at runtime, but the dependencies are HardWired (See what I did there?), so they can't be changed.

module Container
  include HardWire::Container

  singleton DbService
end

Container.registered?(DbService) # true
Container.registered?(DbService, "tagged") # false
Container.registered?(String) # false

Contributing

  1. Fork it (https://github.com/rwnx/hardwire/fork)
  2. Create your feature branch (git checkout -b my-new-feature)
  3. Commit your changes (git commit -am 'Add some feature')
  4. Push to the branch (git push origin my-new-feature)
  5. Create a new Pull Request

Contributors

  • rwnx - creator and maintainer